1 Pharmaceutics



Course Code: ER20-11T                                                         75 Hours (3 Hours/week)

Scope: This course is designed to impart basic knowledge and skills on the art and science of formulating and dispensing different pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Course Objectives: This course will discuss the following aspects of pharmaceutical dosage forms

  1. Basic concepts, types and need
  2. Advantages and disadvantages, methods of preparation / formulation
  3. Packaging and labelling requirements
  4. Basic   quality   control    tests,    concepts    of   quality   assurance    and   good manufacturing practices

Course Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this course, the students will be able to

  1. Describe about the different dosage forms and their formulation aspects
  2. Explain the advantages, disadvantages, and quality control tests of different dosage forms
  3. Discuss the importance of quality assurance and good manufacturing practices






  • History of the profession of Pharmacy in India in relation to Pharmacy education, industry, pharmacy practice, and various professional associations.
  • Pharmacy as a career
  • Pharmacopoeia: Introduction to IP, BP, USP, NF and Extra Pharmacopoeia. Salient features of Indian Pharmacopoeia



Packaging      materials:       Types,       selection      criteria, advantages and disadvantages of glass, plastic, metal,

rubber as packaging materials



Pharmaceutical aids: Organoleptic (Colouring, flavouring, and sweetening) agents

Preservatives: Definition, types with examples and uses



Unit      operations:      Definition,      objectives/applications,

principles, construction, and workings of:


Size reduction: hammer mill and ball mill

Size separation: Classification of powders according to IP, Cyclone separator, Sieves and standards of sieves



Mixing: Double cone blender, Turbine mixer, Triple roller

mill and Silverson mixer homogenizer


Filtration: Theory of filtration, membrane filter and sintered

glass filter

Drying: working of fluidized bed dryer and process of

freeze drying

Extraction:      Definition,     Classification,     method,     and



Tablets – coated and uncoated, various modified tablets

(sustained release, extended-release, fast dissolving, multi- layered, etc.)


Capsules - hard and soft gelatine capsules


Liquid oral preparations - solution, syrup, elixir, emulsion,

suspension, dry powder for reconstitution


Topical preparations - ointments, creams, pastes, gels,

liniments and lotions, suppositories, and pessaries


Nasal preparations, Ear preparations


Powders and granules - Insufflations, dusting powders,

effervescent powders, and effervescent granules


Sterile formulations – Injectables, eye drops and eye



Immunological products: Sera, vaccines, toxoids, and

their manufacturing methods.



Basic structure, layout, sections, and activities of pharmaceutical manufacturing plants

Quality control and quality assurance: Definition and concepts of quality control and quality assurance, current good manufacturing practice (cGMP), Introduction to the

concept of calibration and validation



Novel drug delivery systems: Introduction, Classification

with examples, advantages, and challenges






Course Code: ER20-11P                                                         75 Hours (3 Hours/week)

Scope: This course is designed to train the students in formulating and dispensing common pharmaceutical dosage forms.

Course Objectives: This course will discuss and train the following aspects of preparing and dispensing various pharmaceutical dosage forms

  1. Calculation of working formula from the official master formula
  1. Formulation of dosage forms based on working formula
  2. Appropriate Packaging and labelling requirements
  3. Methods of basic quality control tests

Course Outcomes: Upon successful completion of this course, the students will be able to

  1. Calculate the working formula from the given master formula
  2. Formulate the dosage form and dispense in an appropriate container
  3. Design the label with the necessary product and patient information
  4. Perform the basic quality control tests for the common dosage forms


  1. Handling and referring the official references: Pharmacopoeias, Formularies, etc. for retrieving formulas, procedures, etc.
  1. Formulation of the following dosage forms as per monograph standards and dispensing with appropriate packaging and labelling
    • Liquid Oral: Simple syrup, Piperazine citrate elixir, Aqueous Iodine solution
    • Emulsion: Castor oil emulsion, Cod liver oil emulsion
    • Suspension: Calamine lotion, Magnesium hydroxide mixture
    • Ointment: Simple ointment base, Sulphur ointment
    • Cream: Cetrimide cream
    • Gel: Sodium alginate gel
    • Liniment: Turpentine liniment, White liniment BPC
    • Dry powder: Effervescent powder granules, Dusting powder
    • Sterile Injection: Normal Saline, Calcium gluconate Injection
    • Hard Gelatine Capsule: Tetracycline capsules
    • Tablet: Paracetamol tablets
  2. Formulation of at least five commonly used cosmetic preparations – e.g. cold cream, shampoo, lotion, toothpaste etc
  1. Demonstration on various stages of tablet manufacturing processes
  1. Appropriate methods of usage and storage of all dosage forms including special dosage such as different types of inhalers, spacers, insulin pens
  2. Demonstration of quality control tests and evaluation of common dosage forms viz. tablets, capsules, emulsion, sterile injections as per the monographs


The students shall be asked to submit written assignments on the following topics (One assignment per student per sessional period. i.e., a minimum of THREE assignments per student)

  1. Various systems of measures commonly used in prescribing, compounding and dispensing practices
  2. Market preparations (including Fixed Dose Combinations) of each type of dosage forms, their generic name, minimum three brand names and label contents of the dosage forms mentioned in theory/practical
  3. Overview of various machines / equipments / instruments involved in the formulation and quality control of various dosage forms / pharmaceutical formulations.
  4. Overview of extemporaneous preparations at community / hospital pharmacy vs. manufacturing of dosage forms at industrial level
  5. Basic pharmaceutical calculations: ratios, conversion to percentage fraction, alligation, proof spirit, isotonicity

Field Visit

The students shall be taken for an industrial visit to pharmaceutical industries to witness and understand the various processes of manufacturing of any of the common dosage forms viz. tablets, capsules, liquid orals, injectables, etc. Individual reports from each student on their learning experience from the field visit shall be submitted.